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Call to Action: hardy kiwi may be illegal to grow in New England

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The Massachusetts Invasive Plant Advisory Group (MIPAG) has voted to designate a locally-produced species of kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta; a.k.a. the kiwiberry) as "likely invasive" in the state and has petitioned to have it added to the Mass. Department of Agricultural Resources (MADR) statewide prohibited plant list – on questionable grounds, according to Dr. Iago Hale, assistant professor of specialty crop improvement at the University of New Hampshire. Such an unprecedented listing of a commercialized fruit crop will, says Hale, prohibit Massachusetts farmers from growing kiwiberries, a low-input perennial specialty crop with a profit value exceeding $20,000/acre; and will deny Massachusetts residents the ability to buy kiwiberries from their grocery stores and farmers' markets, even if the berries are produced out of state. Much of the evidence provided by MIPAG in this case is anecdotal or speculative, says Hale, adding that in many instances the claims are false.

Before the January 10 deadline (5 PM), please email Taryn LaScola ( and request that MDAR not include the kiwiberry on its list of prohibited plants. Or, even better, show up in Westborough to give oral testimony in person: link for Call to action letter, and more details about giving oral testimony:


1) Genetic testing to determine whether individually dispersed naturalized growth of kiwi vine is speculative, due to the fact that many of these vines were likely planted over 100 years ago and at that time all vines planted as ornamentals where seedlings, thus they cannot be tracked back to known varieties, thus they are incorrectly assumed to be wildlife dispersed seedlings and labelled "invasive".

2) If this legislation was in place 200 years ago, apples would have been banned, and the entire New England apple and cider industry would be illegal. Sorry Johnny Appleseed.

3) Invasive Biology is a Pseudo Science.

4) People will grow and eat hardy kiwi despite the passing of this legislation.

5) The time, effort and resources spent on disparaging this plant, and the people growing it, is wasting all of our time. Global Climate Chaos won't wait for confused people to wake up and realize their ignorance.

6) If hardy kiwi would have been growing during the Great Depression, millions of people in cold temperate climates would have had access to an easy to grow, delicious fall fruit easily stored and preserved, filled with life giving nutrients including more vitamin C then oranges. Don't kid yourself that socio-economic food scarcity is a thing of the past.

7) Most of the Northeastern temperate climate forest biome is a patchwork of human created novel ecosystems. Actinidia arguta has already been established in this patchwork and cannot be eradicated.

8) If hardy kiwi is banned in Massachusetts there is a reasonable probability that all New England States will also restrict the cultivation and sale of this fruit.

9) As of 2017 Stephen Breyer at Tripple Brook Farm has a 30 year old kiwi vine that is at the top of a 100 year old maple tree. A wild concord grape is smothering the kiwi vine and killing it. Grape vines are sooooo invasive ;) 

10) Based on geologic fossil evidence, Actinidia were once native to North America and likely were present on various parts of the continent for nearly 80 million years (Late Cretaceous into the Tertiary Period). Fossilized Actinidia seeds have been identified in north-central Oregon (Dillhoff et al., 2009) and in Arctic Canada (Matthews and Ovenden, 1990), where the vines grew in a forest composed of pines, spruce, redwood, and tamarack, at a paleolatitude of 74 degrees (well north of the Arctic Circle). Changes in climate and repeated glaciations during the Late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene eliminated Actinidia and many other plants from North America. 

DON'T LET OUR EYES BE DECEIVED BY HISTORY (pictures of the most cited "invasive" hardy kiwi vine, the vine that started it all):
kennedy park hardy kiwi.jpg
Same hardy kiwi vine 100 years later? Kennedy Park, Lenox MA (guess they forgot to prune this one).

Global Climate Change, Food Trees, and the Mushrooms That Orchestrate It All

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Earth ball mushroom with sweet chestnut and husk.

Six years ago a squirrel planted a sweet chestnut seed in my plant nursery and forgot about it. The tree grew, and grew and grew. Today I harvested the first nuts from that tree (and roasted them for dinner, mmm yum). While harvesting the nuts I noticed a few puffball mushrooms growing on the soil scattered around the tree. I didn't think anything about them, other than they were some of the first mushrooms I'd seen since establishing the perennial nursery many years ago. Later that day I reconsidered what I had seen, because...

A few weeks ago I came across a scientific article that compared the ecological function of two groups of soil mycorrhiza (mushrooms). The paper suggests that "Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This leads to the theoretical prediction that soil carbon storage is greater in ecosystems dominated by EEM fungi than in those dominated by AM fungi." (Colin Averill

These mushrooms typically have associations with plants, and when I read this, I immediately did a search to find out which families of trees associated with the high "soil carbon storage" EEMs. The family Fagaceae, which includes the sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, associates with EEM fungus. And it is interesting to note almost all of the EEM tree hosts include the best hard wood trees on the planet like chestnut, oak, and mahogany! (I don't know the science involved here, but it is an interesting correlation, carbon sequestering fungal host=really hard wood full of lots of carbon.)

Then a light bulb lite up in my head. The puffball fungus I saw growing under my chestnut tree is the common earth ball, Scleroderma citrinum, one of the EEM fungus that both associates with chestnuts and it turns out is a carbon sequestering power house!

Thus, a delicious, staple crop food tree fights climate change by way of it's carbon accumulating mushroom partner... How cool is that! And wait till you consider some of the other EEMs that grow under food trees... did someone say Porchini!

Common earth ball, Scleroderma citrinum (unfortunately not edible :(

Looking for Farm Land in Western Massachusetts?

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Regenerative Agriculture Resource Opportunities
Invitation to Participate

February 2016

We are a small group of regenerative agriculture and permaculture activists, land owners, and community organizers offering a small farm in Franklin County, Massachusetts as a base for regenerative agriculture projects. The farm is on the bank of the Connecticut River and has over ten acres of fertile, class A soils, seven of which have been in organic annuals production for almost 20 years and are currently fallow. There are farm buildings, other infrastructure and some equipment.

If you are interested in this opportunity, please contact us with questions, to arrange farm tours and for preliminary discussions. We envision project selection and development as a multi-stakeholder conversation and we encourage you to become involved and get in touch with us as early as possible, at any stage in your project planning.

Our goals and purposes are intentionally general to encourage innovation and imagination. We are seeking proposals that

  • Center around the development of an economically viable, working regenerative agriculture farm
  • Involve some form of community education about regenerative agriculture, for example
    • principles and concepts
    • achieving short and long term viability
    • environmental and community sustainability
    • responses to climate trends and diminishing resources
    • production and use of permaculture crops
  • Seek to improve social and economic equity, for example
    • developing a collaborative, commons-based approach to land use
    • creating job opportunities in marginalized communities
    • fostering resilience, health and wellness in low income communities
    • addressing food system shortcomings

In the abstract, our conception of “regenerative” includes:

  • Co-creative relationships between people, land, plants and animals on the farm
  • Co-creative relationships between the farm and the wider community
  • Social impacts as important as biological impacts
  • Holding long term, whole system health at higher priority than short term yields
  • Means as important as ends
  • Mostly-closed systems: minimizing inputs, minimizing internal resource losses, minimizing resources for delivering outputs

We invite you to develop exciting concrete examples of these concepts. We encourage the submission of multi-stakeholder collaborative projects or projects with collaborative aspirations. We will evaluate project ideas and proposals based on the following criteria:

  • Integration of regenerative agriculture principles
  • Social and community impacts
  • Start-up feasibility
  • Short and long term viability

In outlining your plan and vision, please address the following questions:

  • Who will benefit from your project and what form will those benefits take?
  • How will your project promote social justice?
  • Will your project have impacts on economically marginalized communities? If so, please explain.
  • What resources are you bringing to the project?
  • What resources will you be seeking to acquire through community support and collaboration?

The land owners will negotiate with project(s) selected by the team to establish affordable, permanent or semi-permanent tenure through long term leases or ownership.

Send inquiries and proposals to:

In solidarity,
Jonathan Bates, Ferdene Chin-Yee, Cynthia Marie Espinosa, Kyra Kristof, Scott Reed, Will Szal

Paradise Lot and Eric Toensmeier Join the Carbon Farming Revolution

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Eric Toensmeier, our garden partner from Paradise Lot, just released his new book: "The Carbon Farming Solution: A Global Toolkit of Perennial Crops and Regenerative Agriculture Practices for Climate Change Mitigation and Food Security"

Also, listen to this podcast with Eric Toensmeier about his book, including information about how to support a crowdfunding campaign for Crops to Stop Climate Change, A Global Wiki

Eric Toensmeier and Paradise Lot characters in new INHABIT permaculture film

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Yekra Player


Humanity is more than ever threatened by its own actions; we hear a lot about the need to minimize footprints and to reduce our impact. But what if our footprints were beneficial? What if we could meet human needs while increasing the health and well-being of our planet? This is the premise behind permaculture: a design process based on the replication of patterns found in nature. INHABIT explores the many environmental issues facing us today and examines solutions that are being applied using the ecological design lens of permaculture. Focused mostly on the Northeastern and Midwestern regions of the United States, Inhabit provides an intimate look at permaculture peoples and practices ranging from rural, suburban, and urban landscapes.

We at Food Forest Farm have been anticipating INHABIT for months (we love Costa's work and in fact have hired him for three of our videos). It's filled with our friends and acquaintances: Eric Toensmeier, Lisa DePiano, Lisa Fernandes, Steve Gabriel, Ben Faulk, Steve Witman, Dave Jacke, Geoff Lawton, Keith Morris, Andrew Faust, and Mark Shepard. Watch the trailer and then pay to watch the movie in the comfort of your own living situation. Or, go watch it with your friends at one of the showings near you. If you get inspired by what you see, and want to learn more about the power of permaculture, register for: "Create your own Paradise Lot: Food Tasting and Workshop", and learn within Food Forest Farms' Paradise Lot garden, showcased in the INHABIT film.

Edible and Useful Plants for Your Landscape

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As the days become longer, and we enjoy the remaining days of the winter season, we have this important time to reflect on the past year, and what the warmer days of spring and summer hold. Winter is a wonderful time to contemplate our lives, and consider the abundance around us, particularly how are gardens grow! What will you be planting and eating from the garden this year?

Food Forest Farm has a fantastic lineup of familiar and not so familiar perennial edibles for you to try in your garden this year. 

Choose from our most popular favorites like Sea Kale, Pawpaw, and Russian Comfrey. Or, how about enjoying some up-and-coming goodies: Perennial Leek, Mint Root, or Turkish Rocket! If the past years hold true, most of the plants will be sold out by March, so get them while supplies last. Alternatively, save time, money and gas organizing a group order, and picking up the plants in person. 

Learn More About Our Plants

If your garden is already full of plants, but you're looking for new and exciting learning opportunities, we have a wonderful lineup of Tours, Workshops, and Garden Help Days.

Learn More About Our Events

We continue to be blessed by all the interest and support we've received in the last five years of running an ecological regenerative, permaculturally rooted business. If you've supported us in the past, thank you! If you are new to Food Forest Farm, we'd love to have you as a part of our expanding network, and using our services. To keep up to date on our Farm News…

Sign up for Farm News Here

Happy Solstice, and New Year!

Jonathan, Megan and Jesse
Food Forest Farm
Holyoke, MA

Grafting Asian pear to ornamental Bradford pear

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Many of you have probably seen or know about the flowering pear called Bradford.

A friend of mine had his non-fruiting Bradford pear severely damaged in a snow storm a few years back, and he was about to cut the tree down. He also happens to be new to the world of permaculture, is planting extensive edible gardens, and hadn't yet dived into the power of grafting.

I came along and casually mentioned that, "I've heard you can graft edible pears to Bradfords..."

And he said, "Wow, I didn't know that!"... "Why don't we try grafting to this one."

I happen to have just pruned the delicious chojuro Asian pear at Paradise Lot and a few days later brought some scion wood over to try my luck (I'm a newby to grafting so it was a shot in the dark, and what better way then to practice on a tree that is damaged and going to be cut down anyway.)

And just to mention, I didn't have any grafting tools or materials, but looked online and learned some nice DIY grafting techniques including creating my own grafting wax: 1/2 candle wax melted with 1/2 bees wax mixed with a little baby oil (or any oil really to keep the wax from drying out). used a rubber band to hold the graft in place, then applied the wax around and over the grafting area (the goal being to keep the graft cut from drying out until it gets a chance to heal up). Then over that I rapped a 2 inch width, straight length of cut plastic grocery bag around the graft, rubber band, and wax to protect it all from the elements. Six months later the DIY graft "wrap" had all decayed from sunlight and frost.

Well, as you can see above, the experiment worked! The picture shows the second year of growth on my graft. And look at that perfect fruit!

Now anyone reading this has no excuse but to be grafting any Bradford pear over to european or asian stock.

My friend's plan is to cut the remaining damaged Bradford branches off the tree, eventually converting all of it to fully edible!!!

Go graft crazy and enjoy the bounty.

Soil aggregates, plant roots, and cover crops

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Summer cover crop black eyed peas, some sorghum

Black eyed pea cover crop cut and removed, only pea stalks remain, notice very few weeds

We're doing a lot more experimenting with green cover fallowing and cover cropping in the garden this year. I'm also enjoying learning as much as I can about soil health and the complex biogeochemistry that goes on down below our feet. Above you can see the fantastic results we are getting using black eyed peas (Vigna unguiculata) as a warm season cover crop in Massachusetts (peas purchased for $.99 a pound at the local supermarket). After this cover treatment, the 40 square foot garden bed went into a fall greens mix of spinach, arugula, and lettuce.

Not only was the cover a fantastic weed suppressor, it also helped retain soil moisture, sequester nutrients, and build soil aggregation.

Below you will see the aggregates in action (dark, sticky, brown clods of dirt on the plant roots):

Sorghum soil aggregates. We had a few sorghum mixed in with the black eyed peas.

A question that has come up for me while learning more about cover crops is, do the edible forest garden plants in our garden build, support or act on soil in similar ways, and is there soil aggregation happening on the perennial roots too?

Most of the information out there about soil health and soil aggregates is limited to and focused on annual, conventional crop production. As a forest garden, food forest grower, there is very little information regarding "soil building" with perennial plants. One could assume that a diverse perennial garden acts more like a wild forest ecosystem (that it generally produces its own healthy balanced soil)... but it is a far leap to assume that my garden is acting like a wild forest!

Without putting a lot of intention towards it, what Eric and I have achieved at 'Paradise Lot' seems to resemble what Christine Jones describes as the way to build soil:
"The essential first step to rebuilding topsoil is to maximize photosynthetic capacity. A permanent cover of perennial plants provides an ongoing source of soluble carbon for the soil ecosystem, buffers soil temperatures, inhibits weeds, reduces erosion, improves porosity, enhances aggregate stability and water infiltration, slows evaporation."

Jones continues, "The soluble carbon exuded into the rhizosphere by perennial ground cover plants [grasses/forbes] and/or transported deep into soil by mycorrhizal fungi, provides energy for the vast array of microbes and soil invertebrates that produce sticky substances enabling soil particles to be glued together into lumps (aggregates). When soil is well aggregated, the spaces (pores) between the aggregates allow the soil to breathe, as well as absorb moisture quickly when it rains... Well-structured soils retain the moisture necessary for microbial activity, nutrient cycling and vigorous plant growth and are less prone to erosion."
Unfortunately where Jones and many other soil advisors are lacking is how these ideas relate to a "woody" permanent cover of perennial plants (which is what our garden is).

At a recent soil health event, I asked Christine Jones about the role of trees in building soil, particularly their role as soil aggregators... her response was something like (at least in semi-arid Australia), "Trees don't aggregate soil, but if you want to find out you can dig one up and look for aggregates."

I haven't dug up any of our trees, and I don't plan to, but what I do know is that our perennial polyculture of multipurpose plants garden has become extremely fertile, and that rich humus soil is now down to a depth of 12 inches.

So how did we build such good soils? This recent picture might be a first step in finding out:

See those big black clumps of soil... Low and behold you are looking at a picture of fantastic soil aggregation on the roots of a woody gooseberry bush.

How good are woody plants at building soil with root aggregation? The jury is still out... Look for more on this topic in future posts.

Photos by Eric Toensmeier and others.

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